William Cohen
Rulers of Empire: the French Colonial Service in Africa

Hoover Institution Press. Stanford University. 1971. 279 p.


1. A good beginning in this field:

  • Martin A. Klein. Islam and Imperialism in Senegal: Sine-Saloum, 1847-1914. Stanford, Calif., 1968
  • Brian Weinstein, “Governor General Félix Eboué—A Short Biography”. Unpublished manuscript, 1969.

Chapter I: Founding an Overseas Administration

1. For training programs of various colonial services, see A. Lawrence Lowell, Colonial Civil Service (New York, 1900).
2. For a description of the Algerian resistance to the French before 1840, see Charles A. Julien, Histoire de l’Algérie contemporaine, vol. I (Paris, 1964), 106-163.
3. F. Hugonnet, Souvenirs d’un chef du bureau arabe (Paris, 1858), p. 5.
4. On the bureaux arabes, see Roger Germain, La Politique indigène de Bugeaud (Paris, 1955); also Julien, Histoire de l’Algérie contemporaine, pp. 333-341; General M. Boucherie, “Les Bureaux arabes,” Revue de défense nationale (July 1957), pp. 1052-1066.
5. Faidherbe, quoted in A. P. Thornton, Doctrines of Empire (New York, 1965), title page.
6. “Mémoire sur la colonie du Sénégal,” August 1856, in S6nigal, 1, 43, Archives nationales, France, Section outre-mer (henceforth cited as ANSOM).
7. Faidherbe to Minister of Navy, St. Louis, October 14, 1859, Sénégal, 1, 46, ANSOM. In speaking of an educational program for Senegal, Faidherbe also wrote, “In this as in many other matters, we have only to imitate what was done in Algeria.” Quoted in P. Cultru, Histoire du Sénégal du XVe. siècle à 1890 (Paris, 1910), p. 365.
8. Quoted in I. M. Brunel, Le Général Faidherbe (Paris, 1890), p. 135.
9. Arrêté, January 22, 1862, in Feuille officielle du Sénégal (Saint Louis, 1862), pp. 284-286.
10. Ibid.
11. Faidherbe to Minister of Navy, September 11, 1863, in Sénégal, 1, 50, ANSOM.
12. “Mémoire sur la colonie du Sénégal,” Sénégal, 1, 43, ANSOM.
13. Ibid.
14. Ibid.
15. Faidherbe to Minister of Navy, St. Louis, October 14, 1859, in Sénégal, 1, 46, ANSOM.
16. Quoted in Anon., Marine et colonies: Opinion dun marin, ancien gouverneur de colonie (Paris, 1886), p. 47; author’s italics.
17. Jauréguiberry to Minister of Navy, January 8, 186 2, in Sénégal, VII, 13, ANSOM.
18. Frederic Carrère and Paul Holle, De la Sénégambie française (Paris, 1855), p. 341.
19. Jauréguiberry to minister of navy, October 16, 1862, in Sénégal, VII, 13, ANSOM. Governor Pinet-Laprade also shared this view: Pinet-Laprade to Minister of Navy, June 27, 1866, 21333 bis, Archives nationales, Sénégal (henceforth cited as ANS).
20. Naval ministry memorandum, n.d. (presumably written in 1869), in Sénégal, II, 4, ANSOM.
21. Quoted in A. D. A. De Kat Angelino, Colonial Policy (Hague, 19 31), I, 6.
22. J. M. Compton, “Open Competition and the Indian Civil Service, 1854-1876,” English Historical Review LXXXIII (April 1968), 267.
23. Brière de I’Isle to minister of navy, April 7, 1879, in 21152, ANS. Eugène Etienne, undersecretary of colonies, made a similar description of the men overseas in 1887: “Mostly, the overseas functionaries coming from the metropolitan bureaucracy go abroad only to get higher pay, or, if they have had no previous government service, they desire to leave France only because they don’t know what to do at home.” Etienne to Governor General Ernest Constans, Paris, November 19, 1887, Indochine A 11(9), ANSOM, quoted in Herward Sieberg, Eugène Etienne und die französische Kolonialpolitik (1887-1904) (Cologne, 1968), p. 45.
24. Brière de I’Isle to minister of navy, July 8, 1879, in 2B52, ANS.
25. Circular of directeur de l’intérieur to commandants de cercles, November 30,
26. General inspector of Navy to Minister of Navy, June 7, 1874, in Sénégal, VII, 14, ANSOM.
27. Gallieni to governor of Senegal; Kita, March 15, 1887, in Sénégal, VII, 15 bis, ANSOM.
28. Personnel File EE 119 (4), ANSOM.
29. Personnel File EE.II 140 (1), ANSOM.
30. Personnel file of Georges Ehrmann, ANSOM.

Chapter II: The Years of Experimentation

1. De la colonisation chez les peuples modernes, 5th ed. (Paris, 1902), 11, 695-696.
2. Ibid., II, 692.
3. Albert Duchêne, La Politique coloniale de la France (Paris, 1928), pp. 34-35.
4. Albéric Neton, Delcassé (Paris, 195 2), pp. 119-120.
5. With the exception of thirteen months (August 1882 to September 1883) when the colonies were again put under the responsibility of a civil servant with the title of director, this system of organization was to last until 1894. For two brief periods, in 1889 and again in 1894, the undersecretariat of colonies became again an undersecretariat in the ministry of commerce, then known asthe ministry of commerce and colonies.
6. J. Chailley “Chroniques,” Quinzaine coloniale, January 10, 1908; quoted in Jacques Chastenet, La République des républicains (Paris, 1954), p. 267. The only scholarly study of Etienne is Sieberg, Eugène Etienne und die französische Kolonialpolitik
7. Frangois Berge, “Le Sous-secrétariat et les sous-secrétaires d’Etat aux colonies: Histoire de l’émancipation de l’administration coloniale,” Revue française d’histoire d’outre-mer XLVII (1960), 361.
8. Duchêne, La Politique coloniale de la France, p. 290.
9. In 1909 the ministry of colonies was moved to a more spacious building across the Seine, located at Rue Oudinot. The ministry was to remain there until it was abolished in 1959.
10. Note by Faure, June 1898, when Delcassé became foreign minister; quoted in Berge, “Le Sous-secrétariat,” p. 368.
11. Duchêne, La Politique coloniale, pp. 112-13 1.
12. See, for instance, Jean Blancsubé, Projet d’organisation d’un ministère des colonies (Paris, 1883); Anon., Les Fonctionnaires des colonies en avant, par un voyageur (Paris, 1884); Anon., Marine et colonies: Opinion d’un marin, ancien gouverneur des colonies (Paris, 1886).
13. Gallieni to Etienne, Siguiri, Sudan, February 10, 1888 (Nouvelles acquisitions, France, 24327, Bibliothèque nationale, manuscript division.)
14. Pierre Ma, Organisation du ministèe des colonies (Paris, 1910), pp. 7-8.
15. Neton Delcassé, p. 125.
16. Berge, “Le Sous-secrétariat,” p. 324.
17. Decree, September 2, 1887, Journal officiel de la République Française : Lois et décrets (Paris, 1887), p. 4086 (henceforth the Journal officiel will be cited as J.O.).
18. Ibid.
19. Decree, December 12, 1888, J.O.: Lois et décrets (Paris, 1888), p. 5 365.
20. Paul Tisseyre Ananké, L’Assiette au beurre coloniale (Paris, 1911), p. 34.
21. 1C 21, Archives de l’Afrique occidentale frangaise, Dakar (henceforth cited as AAOF).
22. Victor Margueritte, “De la justice,” Annales coloniales XIII (June 1, 1912).
23. Robert Delavignette, Freedom and Authority in French West Africa (London, 1885. 1950), p. 27.
24. A. H. Canu, La Politique coloniale (Paris, 1894), p. 86.
25. Lucien Hubert, L’Eveil d’un monde (Paris, 1909), p. 73.
26. Georges Hardy, Ergaste, ou la vocation coloniale (Paris, 1929), p. 9.
27. Echo de Paris, May 6, 1931; quoted in Jean Suignard, Une Grande administration indochinoise (Paris, 1931), p. 54.
28. Hubert Deschamps, “La Vocation coloniale et le métier d’administrateur,” Afrique française, supplément, XLI (September 1931), 498.
29. Robert Heussler, Yesterday’s Rulers (Syracuse, N.Y., 1963), passim.
30. Bulletin de l’Association professionnelle des administrateurs coloniaux, no. 15 (September 30, 1910), 2-3. (Henceforth cited as BAPAC.)
31. See next chapter for a discussion of the Ecole Coloniale.
32. For material on opposition to the school, see newspaper clippings in scrapbook edited by the institution entitled Documents divers. It is available in the library of the Institut international d’administration publique, Paris. For opposition from the Lyon Chamber of Commerce, see John F. Laffey, “Roots of French Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century: The Case of Lyon,” French Historical Studies VI (April 1969), 87-88.
33. Emile Boutmy, Le Recrutement des administrateurs coloniaux (Paris, 1895).
34. Recueils des délibérations du congrès colonial national, Paris, 1889-90 (Paris, 1890), passim.
35. 1C 374, AAOF.
36. An example of such pressure is the letter sent by the Association professionnelle des administrateurs coloniaux to the minister of colonies, April 5, 1909; printed in BAPAC no. 10 (June 30, 1909), 2.
37. C. Pillias, “Composition du corps des administrateurs des colonies,” BAPAC no. 1 (July 13, 1907), p. 1.
38. Ibid.
39. EE II 1242 (3), ANSOM.
40. Jules Champon file, ANSOM.
41. Pillias, “Composition du corps des administrateurs des colonies,” p. 1.
42. EE II 1124 (4), ANSOM.
43. 1C 1039, AAOF.
44. 1C 1068, AAOF.
45. Files available of administrators who had previously been agents reveal that of 89 agents appointed from 1890 to 1900, 36 percent had at least a secondary education, while of 183 agents appointed during 1906-1914, 68 percent had a baccalauréat degree or higher.
46. Henri Raybaud file, ANSOM.
47. Letter from Lyautey to Chailley-Bert, Fort Dauphin, December 30, 1901, in Lettres du sud de Madagascar, 1000-1902 (Paris, 1935), p. 212.
48. Pillias, “Composition du corps des administrateurs des colonies,” p. 1.
49. For a discussion of the Congo scandal, see Félicien Challaye, Souvenirs sur la colonisation (Paris, 1935); Jules Saintoyant, L’Affaire du Congo, 1905 (Paris, 1960).
50. In a letter of instructions from Clémentel to Brazza, reproduced in Afrique française XV (April 1905), 175.
51. Victor Augagneur, “Le Recrutement des administrateurs coloniaux,” Annales coloniales XIII (April 6, 1912), 1.
52. Decree, June 5, 1913, Journal officiel, AEF.
53. Ralph A. Austen, Northwest Tanzania under German and British Rule (New Haven, Conn., 1968), p. 63.
54. Thus a governor vaunting the qualities of one of his subordinates serving in the bush wrote of him: “He speaks German and English as fluently as French; he reads, writes, but speaks with some difficulty Chinese.” 1C 660, AAOF.

Chapter III: Beginnings of the Ecole Coloniale

1. Joseph Chailley-Bert, “Recrutement des fonctionnaires coloniaux,” Comptes rendus, Institut colonial international (Paris, 1895), pp. 289309; M. J. Silvestre, “Le Recrutement des fonctionnaires de l’Indochine frangaise,” Congrès colonial international de Paris, 1889 (Paris, 1889), pp. 231-247. The heavy workload at the college, one writer suggests, may also have had something to do with the brevity of its existence: courses on traditional Vietnamese administration, botany, practical construction, and a general course on Cambodia. Milton E. Osborne, The French Presence in Cochinchina and Cambodia-Rule and Response (1859-190S) (Ithaca, N.Y., 1969, p. 43).
2. Debate, February 13, 1888, Jo., Chambre des députés: Débats (Paris, 1888), p. 398.
3. One historian of French colonization claims that the Dutch school at Delft was “directly the French model.” Stephen H. Roberts, The History of French Colonial Policy, 1870-1925 (London, 1929), I, 161. He fails, however, to document this point satisfactorily. Unfortunately, I have found no material regarding this problem in the archives.
4. Colonisation de l’Indochine: L’Expérience anglaise (Paris, 1891); La Hollande et les fonctionnaires des Indes Néerlandaises (Paris, 1902).
5. Le Libéral de l’Est (Belfort), August 19, 1886. There had been earlier attempts at educating young men in France for the purpose of gaining influence in their homelands. During the late seventeenth century an army officer brought back to France a young African named Aniaba, allegedly Prince of Assinie, on the Ivory Coast. The officer gave him an education and the Bishop of Meaux, Bossuet, baptized him into the Christian faith with Louis XIV standing as godfather. The “Prince” lived several years in France, but when he was brought back to Assinie, the French attempt to use him in establishing a commercial foothold and Christianizing his homeland failed dismally. Shelby T. McCloy, The Negro in France (Lexington, Ky., 196 1), pp. 16-17; and Henri Mouëzy, Assinie et le royaume de Krinjabo (Paris, 1953), pp. 25-39. I am grateful to Mr. Thomas Cassily for bringing the latter reference to my attention.
Despite the discouraging example of “Prince” Aniaba, during the next century a missionary in French India, the Reverend Charles de Montalembert, suggested the founding of a college for young Indians who would study in France; upon their return to India, they would occupy the highest functions “from which they will spread our influence.” Quoted in Victor Morel, “L’Ecole Coloniale,” in J. Charles-Roux et al., eds., Colonies et pays de protectorat, exposition universelle (Paris, 1900), p. 413.
6. In the 1850s Faidherbe had founded in Senegal a school for chiefs’ sons called Ecole des otages; it is possible that the under-secretariat envisioned the Ecole Coloniale as fulfilling for the entire empire what Faidherbe’s institution was doing for Senegal.
7. Decree, November 23, 1889, J.O.: Lois et décrets (Paris, 1889), p. 5 861.
8. “De l’influence de l’éducation et des institutions européennes sur les populations indigènes des colonies,” Congrès colonial international de Paris, 1889, pp. 49-76.
9. “Rapport présenté au conseil de perfectionnement de I’Ecole Coloniale par M. Ouachée,” polygraph copy (Paris, 1900); available at the library of the Institut international d’administration publique, Paris.
10. Ibid.
11. Cited in Société des anciens élèves de l’Ecole Coloniale, L’Ecole Coloniale et ses élèves, 1885-1905 (Paris, 1905), p. 3 1.
12. Ibid.
13. “Rapport au conseil d’administration sur le fonctionnement de Mools Coloniale par M. Aymonier, directeur, 1891-1892,” polygraph copy; available at the library of the Institut international d’administration publique, Paris.
14. Bulletin officiel des colonies IV (Paris, 1890), 313.
15. Quinzaine coloniale VII (January 10, 1900), 3.
16. EE II 1232 (7), ANSOM.
17. Société des anciens élèves, L’Ecole Coloniale et ses élèves, p. 58.
18. Rapport sur le fonctionnement de L’Ecole Coloniale, 1898-1899 (Paris, 1899), p. 9.
19. Even before World War I, interviews played an important role in the recruitment of the British colonial service. Heussler, Yesterday’s Rulers, pp. 22-26.
20. On concours, see Roy Jumper, “Entrance Examinations for the French Administrative Service,” Personnel Administration XVIII (September 1, 1955), 31-37, 47; Michel Crozier, The Bureaucratic Phenomenon (Chicago, 1964),
21. Heussler, Yesterday’s Rulers, pp. 17-26.
22. W. R. Sharp The French Civil Service (New York, 1932), p. 140.
23. Ecole Coloniale, Année scolaire, 1902-1903, Rapport Sur le fonctionnement de L’Ecole (Paris, 1903), p. 7.
24. “Rapport addressé au président du conseil d’administration de L’Ecole Coloniale sur le concours d’admission de 1899,” polygraph copy (Paris, 1899);, the Institut international d’administration publique, Paris.
25. Ibid.
26. I am grateful to Robert Delavignette for furnishing me with information about Dislère.
27. See Carl J. Friedrich, “The Continental Tradition of Training Administrators in Law and Jurisprudence,” Journal of Modern History XI (June 1939), 129-148.
28. Of all the directors of the Ecole Coloniale until World War II, Robert Delavignette was the one who most de-emphasized the study of law; nevertheless, he made all the above-mentioned claims for the usefulness of legal studies. Interviews in 1965.
29. “Rapport présenté au conseil d’administration de l’Ecole Coloniale, 1899-1900,” polygraph copy (Paris, 1900); available at the library of the Institut international d’administration publique, Paris.
30 Already in 1895 the criticism had been made that the Ecole Coloniale was training within the walls of the same institution men for such diverse tasks as administration in Africa and in Indochina. Boutmy, Le Recrutement des administrateurs coloniaux, pp. 3 8-40.
31. It was claimed in 1913 that an administrator in Indochina could expect to be promoted to administrator first class with a year’s salary of 20,000 francs. Within ten years of entering the service. Within the same time an administrator in Africa would have the rank of administrator second class and would only be paid 12,000 francs a year. Jean Sore, “La Réorganisation nécessaire des cadres généraux de l’administration coloniale,” Presse coloniale, November 15, 20, 21, 1913.
32. Joost Van Vollenhoven was the only top graduate before World War I to join the central administration in Paris.
33. A copy of this examination is contained in a scrapbook of the Ecole Coloniale entitled Documents divers, which is now available at the library of the Institut international d’administration publique, Paris.
34. Roberts, History of French Colonial Policy, I, 161.
35. M. M. Knight, “French Colonial Policy: The Decline of ‘Association,’” Journal of Modern History V (1933), 208-224.
36. Raymond F. Betts, Assimilation and Association in French Colonial Theory, 1890-1914 (New York, 1961); chapters iv and v are particularly instructive. See also Martin D. Lewis, “One Hundred Million Frenchmen: The Assimilationist Theory in French Colonial Policy,” Comparative Studies in Society and History IV (January 1962), 129-153.
37. “Dix années de politiques coloniales,” Journal des débats (October 4, 190 1), p. 3. Being one of the founders of the associationist doctrine, Chailley-Bert also complained that the graduates of the school “do not always show sufficient respect toward the native chiefs who are their daily collaborators.”
38. Louis Vignon, quoted in La Libre parole, July 27, 1894.
39. In scrapbook, Documents divers, composition des étudiants, 1903-1908; available at the library of the Institut international d’administration publique, Paris.
40. “While the European child loses his child brain when he matures, the inferior man, incapable by heredity of surpassing a certain level, stops at a certain inferior level of development.” Congrès colonial international de Paris, 1889, p. 71.
41. Robert Delavignette, Christianity and Colonialism, trans. by J.R. Foster (New York, 1964), p. 33.
42. Ministère des colonies, Organisation et fonctionnement de L’Ecole Coloniale (Levallois-Perret, 1904), pp. 40-41.
43. Ministère des colonies, Ecole Coloniale, Rapport de M. le président du conseil d’administration de L’Ecole Coloniale, 1908-1909 (Paris, 1909), p. 6.
44. The one who was able to put his flying to use served in AOF. In 1911 he was unfortunately involved in two accidents. In the first he broke his leg; in the second, which occurred a few months later, he fell from a height of fifty meters and broke his hip and both legs. The report of the Ecole Coloniale for 1911 assures its readers that “these two accidents were the only ones that occurred to M. Carles during his flight career.” Ministère des colonies, Ecole Coloniale, Rapport d M. le président du conseil d’administration de l’Ecole Coloniale, 1910-1911 (Paris, 1911), p. 7.
45. During the war, Governor-General Joost Van Vollenhoven remarked that “the Ecole Coloniale remains too much ignored by our university youth and it deserves to be in the same rank with the other grandes écoles.” Comité d’initiative des amis de Vollenhoven, Une Ame de chef. Le Gouverneur général J. Van Vollenhoven (Paris, 1920), pp. 111-112.
46. Senate debate, quoted in Bulletin de la SociM des anciens élèves de L’Ecole Coloniale IX (March 4, 1909), 1. (Hereafter this publication cited as BSAEC)
47. Charles Regismanset, Questions coloniales (1912-1923) (Paris, 1923), 129-130.
48. Signal (November 17, 1904).
49. Quoted in Albert Prévaudeau, Joost Van Vollenhoven (Paris, 1953), p. 16.
50. Louis Lyautey, Paroles d’action (Paris, 1927), p. 53; quoted in Raymond F. Betts, “The French Colonial Frontier,” in Charles K. Warner, ed., From the Ancien Régime to the Popular Front: Essays in the History of Modern France In Honor of Shepard B. Clough (New York, 1969), p. 133.
51. Louis Bertrand, Notre Afrique (Paris, 1925), p. 22; quoted in Betts, “The French Colonial Frontier,” p. 136.
52. Figaro littéraire (October 28, 1965).
53. J. F. Reste, “Grand corps et grand commis dans la France d’outre-mer,” Revue des deux mondes (March 15, 1959), pp. 329-330.
54. Agathon (pseud. of André Tarde and Henri Massis), Les Jeunes gens d’aujourd’hui (Paris, 1913), pp. 140-144.
55. Rapport au conseil d’administration de L’Ecole Coloniale sur le concours de 1899, par M. Puaux ([Paris], 1899). None of the subsequent reports contains information regarding the social origin either of the candidates for admission or of the cadets themselves. In the 1920s, however, such information was again published.
56. BAPA C no. 2 (July 13, 1907), 16.
57. Commission du statut des fonctionnaires, Rapport au conseil supérieure de statistique, rapport préliminaire (Paris, 1908), pp. 17-18.
58. Twelve students a year were exempted from paying tuition fees, and six in the second and third year of studies were given scholarships of 1,200 francs. Decree, April 9, 1891, J.O.: Lois et décrets, pp. 1584-1585.
59. Answer to questionnaire, October 1965.
60. Quoted in BSAEC IX (March 1, 1909), 1.

Chapter IV: The Locus of Power

1. Robert Delavignette, La Paix nazaréenne (Paris, 1943), p. 9 1.
2. Albert Sarraut, former governor-general of Indochina, Frangois Piétri, former director-general of finances in Morocco, and Théodore Steeg, former governor-general of Algeria were the only exceptions to the rule.
3. See Appendix I for the list of ministers and undersecretaries in colonial affairs. For the period 1871 to 1914 the ministers and undersecretaries averaged 13 months of service; for the period 1915 to 1929, 11 months of service; and for the years 1930 to 1940, 7 months of service. Of the 74 men in charge of colonial affairs from 1871 to 1940, only 11 served more than 2 years; 5 served between 18 and 24 months, 12 served between 12 and 18 months, 15 served between 6 and 12 months, 19 served between 6 and 12 months, and 12 served a month or less.
4. Cited in Georges Hardy, Histoire sociale de la colonisation française. (Paris, 1953), p. 47.
5. Ibid.
6. Adolphe Messimy, Notre oeuvre coloniale (Paris, 19 10), p. 3 96.
7. Annexe procès-verbal, séance February 11, 1916, Jo., Chambre des Débats (Paris, 1916), pp. 3-4.
8. Comité franco-britannique d’études coloniales, Les Méthodes d’administration et de gouvernement dans les colonies anglaises et franfaises (Paris, n.d.), p, 23. A similar complaint is also voiced in Adolphe Messimy, Mes souvenirs (Paris,
1938), pp. 40-41.
9. Comité d’initiative, Une Ame de chef, pp. 53-54.
10. J.O., Chambre des députés: Documents parlementaires, séance January 13, 1938 (Paris, 1938), p. 49. For the best study on the colonial inspectorate see Reuben Gainer, “Watchdogs of Empire: The French Colonial Inspection Service in Action, 1815-1913” (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Rochester University, 1970).
11. Annales coloniales XXXI (February 11, 1930).
12. Comité d’initiative, Une Ame de chef, p. 4 1. Even when the inspectors did file detailed reports and make recommendations, these were not always acted upon by the ministry; complaint voiced by Minister of Colonies Henri Simon, in circular, February 3, 1919; Affaires politiques, 2553/9, ANSOM.
13. Brazza to minister of colonies, August 21, 1905; Brazza Archives, ANSOM.
14. Letter from Association desfonctionnaires civils de l’administration centrale du minist&e des colonies, to minister of colonies, Paris, March 30, 1911; in Affaires politiques, 2516/10, ANSOM.
15. Regismanset, Questions coloniales (1912-1923), p. 232.
16. Letter from Association des fonctionnaires to minister of colonies, March 30, 1911.
17. Ibid.
18. Ibid.
19. Robert Doucet, Commentaires sur la colonisation (Paris, 1926), p. 87.
20. Interview with former governor, February 3, 1965. This governor administered one of the colonies that was not under the authority of a governor-general; thus he dealt directly with the minister.
21. Comité d’initiative, Une Ame de chef, p. 4 7.
22. Leroy-Beaulieu, De la colonisation chez les peuples modernes, 11, 36. For the independence of the military officers in the Sudan, see A. S. Kanya-Forstner, The Conquest of the Western Sudan: A Study in Military Imperialism (London, 1969).
23. EE 11308 (15), ANSOM.
24. 1 C 288, AAOF.
25. EE 11160 (2), ANSOM.
26. EE 11 1206 (6), ANSOM.
27. Gallieni au Tonkin (1892-1896): Par lui-même (Paris, 194 1), p. 56.
28. Pierre Gourou, “Gallieni,” in Charles A. Julien, ed., Techniciens de la colonisation (Paris, 1946), p. 109.
29. Report, 4G 34, AAOF.
30. Maurice Delafosse, Broussard, ou les états d’âme dun colonial (Paris, 1922), p. 136.
31. Delavignette, Freedom and Authority in French West Africa, pp. 6-8.
32. Gallieni au Tonkin, pp. 221-222.
33. Ibid.
34. Hubert Lyautey, Lettres du Tonkin et de Madagascar (1894-1899) (Paris, 1921), p. 118.
35. A long-lived myth, accepted by most French overseas officials, has it that Van Vollenhoven resigned out of protest against the excessive recruitment of black soldiers. But in fact Van Vollenhoven resigned because the appointment of the Senegalese deputy, Blaise Diagne, as commissioner of the republic in charge of recruiting black troops, required him to share his administrative powers with Diagne. The powers of the governor-general, Van Vollenhoven claimed, were indivisible. Rather than share these powers, Van Vollenhoven preferred to resign.
36. Pierre Messmer, a former governor-general and later a member of several De Gaulle cabinets, wrote of Van Vollenhoven in 1964: “His memory has always remained alive.” Letter, March 20, 1964, reprinted in Annuaire de lAssociation des anciens élèves de I’Ecole nationale de la France doutre-mer (Paris, 1964).
37. Comité d’initiative, Une Ame de chef, p. 41.
38. General Mangeot, La Vie ardente de Van Vollenhoven, gouverneur-général de l’AOF (Paris, 1943), p. 4 2.
39. Gouvernement du Soudan frangais, Service local, Instructions à l’usage des commandants de régions et de cercles, 2nd ed. (Paris, 1897), pp. 6-10.
40. M. Roux, Manuel à l’usage des administrateurs (Paris, 1911), p. 28.
41. Maurice Delafosse, “Les états d’âme d’un colonial,” L’Afrique française XIX (May 1909), 163.
42. J.O.: Lois et dicrets (Paris, 1887), p. 4453.
43. The act imposed penalties for the following offences:

  1. neglect to pay taxes or perform labor service
  2. refusal to answer the administrator’s summons
  3. firing of a shot during a feast, closer than 500 meters to the administrator’s residence
  4. display of disrespect by word or deed against a representative of French authority
  5. hiding oneself or one’s property during census
  6. giving asylum to a criminal
  7. destruction or displacement of road signs or markers
  8. failure to dispose of dead animals
  9. burial outside regulated areas and regulated depths
  10. the making of speeches in public tending to weaken respect for French authority
  11. refusal to give statistical information, or the willful giving of misleading information
  12. failure to appear before an administrator making a judicial inquest
  13. failure or neglect to help in case of emergency
  14. failure in case of epidemics to execute sanitary regulations ordered by the administrator
  15. usurpation of the functions of village or canton chief
  16. keeping vagrant animals and the refusal to return them
    Arrêté, October 12, 1888, Bulletin administratif du Sénégal (Gorée, 1888), pp. 267-268.

44. Circular of governor-general to the commandants de cercles, May 24, 1912, in 7G 63 AAOF.
45. “Instruction sur I’application du décret du 10 novembre 1903,” reprinted in Georges François, L’Afrique occidentale française (Paris, 1907), pp. 158-159.
46. Ibid., p. 163.
47. Circular of governor-general to commandants de cercles, May 24, 1912, in 7G 63 AAOF.
48. William Ponty, “Instructions remises à M. le Gouverneur Angoulvant, lieutenant-gouverneur de la Côte d’lvoire,” August 29, 1914, Affaires politiques, 556, 1, ANSOM.
49. Quoted in P. F. Gonidec, Droit d’outre-mer (Paris, 1959), I, 185.
50. Messimy, Notre oeuvre coloniale, p. 60.
51. Minister of colonies to governor-general of AOF, Paris, October 29, 1902; AOF, I, 9, ANSOM.
52. 4G 21, AAOF. “Prestations” was a form of forced labor mainly employed to build roads; the system of “portages” permitted the recruitment of porters.
53. Hubert Deschamps and Paul Chauvet, eds., Gallieni, pacificateur: Ecrits coloniaux de Gallieni (Paris, 1949), p. 364. In German East Africa taxes were imposed in 1897 for their supposed educational benefits, rather than revenue purposes. Austen, Northwest Tanzania, p. 54.
54. “Commission pour l’organisation du Cameroun et de l’AEF,” in Affaires politiques, 649/17, ANSOM.
55. Telegram, Brazza to minister of colonies, July 26, 1905; Brazza Archives, ANSOM.
56. Challaye, Souvenirs sur la colonisation, pp. 86-87.
57. Brazza to minister of colonies, August 21, 1905; Brazza Archives, ANSOM.
58. Often used by Ponty; see his “Discours prononcés par M. Ponty, gouverneur-général de l’Afrique occidentale française, 1909” (Gorée, 1909), p. 12; circular of April 1, 1913, in 17G 38, AAOF.
59. Quoted by Lyautey, Lettres du Tonkin, p. 71. For some earlier advocates of a similar view see Osborne, The French Presence, pp. 44-46.
60. Rémi Clignet, “The Legacy of Assimilation in West African Educational Systems,” Comparative Educational Review (February 1968), pp. 65-66.
61. Ronald Robinson and John Gallagher, Africa and the Victorians (London, 1963); Henri Brunschwig, Mythes et réalités de l’impérialisme colonial français,
1871-1914 (Paris, 1960).
62. Debate, February 13, 1888, J.O., Chambre des députés: Débats (Paris, 1888), p. 394.
63. Among the 83 members of the Sudan Political Service recruited from 1899 to 1914, for example, 36 were graduates of Oxford, 20 of Cambridge, 9 of Sandhurst, and 6 of Trinity College, Dublin. Prosser Gifford, “Indirect Rule: Touchstone or Tombstone for Colonial Policy,” in Prosser Gifford and William Roger Louis, eds., Britain and Germany in Africa (New Haven, Conn., 1967), p. 356.
64. Ibid., p. 357.
65. Robert Delavignette, Service africain (Paris, 1946), p. 38. I am using the French edition since this passage is significantly abbreviated in the English translation.
66. Interview, Paris, March 23, 1965.
67. Henri Labouret, Robert Delavignette, and Albert Charton, “L’Afrique occidentale française, aujourd’hui-demain,” Le Monde colonial illustré CXXIV (1933), 188.
68. Quoted by Afrique française XX (July 1910), 215; also in Jean Suret-Canale, Afrique noire, occidentale et centrale: vol. 11, L’Ere coloniale, 1900-1945 (Paris, 1964), p. 103.
69. Jacques Lombard, Autorités traditionnelles et pouvoirs européens en Afrique noire (Paris, 1967), p. 106.
70. Quoted in Neton, Delcassé, p. 128.
71. Circular, January 30, 1914, 17G 38, AAOF.
72. Commandant de cercle of Ségou in marginal notes answering observations made by Inspector-General Wray, in his report to the minister of colonies on the Sudan in 1910; 4G 10, AAOF.
73. Quoted in Jean Suret-Canale, “La Fin de la chefferie en Guinée” Journal of African History VII (1966),467.
74. Henri Labouret, A la recherche d’une politique indigene dans l’Ouest africain (Paris, 1931), p. 38.
75. Louis Binger, Du Niger au golfe de Guinée par le pays Kong et les Mossi, 1887-1889 (Paris, 1892), 1, 467; quoted in Elliot P. Skinner, The Mossi of the Upper Volta (Stanford, Calif., 1964), p. 143.
76. Messimy, Notre oeuvre coloniale, pp. 42-50.
77. Ibid., p. 3.
78. Comité d’initiative, Une Ame de chef, p. 20 3.
79. One example is an administrator who served in Oubangui-Chari in 1911; IC 7 97 AAOF.
80. Interview with administrator who served during the interwar years, Paris, February 2, 1965.
81. Martin A. Klein, Islam and Imperialism in Senegal: Sine Saloum, 1847-1914 (Stanford, Calif., 1968), p. 170 and passim. For a spirited debate on French rule, see Hubert Deschamps, “Et maintenant, Lord Lugard?” Africa XXXIII, no. 4 (October 1963), 293-306; and Michael Crowder, “Indirect Rule-French and British Style,” Africa XXXIV, no. 3 (July 1964), 197-205. Basing his argument on British administration in East Africa, M. Semakula Kiwanuka argues that there never was a difference between the British and French systems of colonial administration. “Colonial Policies and Administrations in Africa: The Myths of the Contrasts,” African Historical Studies III, no. 2 (1970), 295-315.
82. Brian Weinstein, “Félix Eboué and the Chiefs: Perceptions of Power in Early Oubangui-Chari,” Journal of African History XI (January 1970), 107-126.
83. Ibid.
84. In 1910 in AOF there was one administrator for 5,457 square kilometers, in Madagascar one per 1,901 square kilometers, in the Congo region one per 8,102 square kilometers. In relation to population, there was one per 12,290 inhabitants for AOF, one per 8,769 for Madagascar, and one per 37,383 inhabitants for the Congo region. Messimy, Notre oeuvre coloniale, p. 322.
85. A. Demougeot, Notes sur l’organisation politique et administrative du Labé (Dakar, 1944), p. 50.
86. Deschamps and Chauvet, Gallieni, pacificateur, p. 246.
87. Comité d’initiative, Une Ame de chef, p. 208.
88. “Etats d’Ame d’un colonial,” L’Afrique française XIX (May 1909), 164; also quoted by Suret-Canale, Afrique noire, occidentale et centrale, pp. 404-405.
89. Report of inspector-general to minister of colonies, Dakar, May 22, 1919; 4G 21, AAOF.
90. IC 949, AAOF.
91. Angoulvant to governor-general of AOF, Bingerville, February 17, 1919, in IC 43, AAOF.
92. EE II 140 (1), ANSOM.
93. IC 612, AAOF.
94. IC 694, AAOF.
95. IC 267, AAOF.
96. IC 248, AAOF.
97. IC 56, AAOF.
98. IC 368, AAOF.
99. For the drug addict, see EE 11 308 (14), ANSOM. Several files of alcoholics transferred to the Congo can be cited: EE 11 140 (1), EE II 308 (14), EE II 1158 (4), ANSOM; IC 598, AAOF.
100. Letter, December 17, 1915, in IC 106, AAOF. Writing of the leniency with which acts of maladministration were treated, Van Vollenhoven noted that a habit had developed of “giving a thousand excuses to explain, to attenuate, and let us say the word, because I must speak frankly, to hide the facts.”” Circular of July 12, 1917, BAPAC XXXIX (August 31, 1917), 38.
101. EE II 1002 (3), ANSOM.
102. Brazza to Desruisseaux, May 13, 1905; Brazza Archives, ANSOM.
103. Richard Hill, “Government and Christian Missions in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1899-1914,” Middle Eastern Studies 1 (1965), 115, quoted in Gifford, “Indirect Rule,” p. 356.
104. 1C 28, AAOF.
105. 1C 308, AAOF.
106. 1C 521, AAOF.
107. 1C 367, AAOF.
108. EE II 1158 (2), ANSOM.

Chapter V: The Colonial School and the New Generation

1. Citation of October 8, 1926; reprinted in Annuaire de l’Association des anciens élèves de l’Ecole nationale de la France d’outre-mer (Paris, 1964).
2. In 1921, for instance, 45 candidates competed for 21 posts. Ministère des colonies, Ecole Coloniale, Rapport d M, le président du conseil de l’administration de l’Ecole Coloniale, année 1921-1922 (Paris, 1922), p. 6.
3. Letter reprinted in BAPAC 54 (July 31, 1922), 233.
4. François Mury, “Nos administrateurs coloniaux en Afrique,” Le Courrier colonial (March 22, 1929).
5. Marie Roustan, “Pour nos administrateurs coloniaux,” Annales coloniales (September 1, 1928).
6. Sharp, The French Civil Service, p. 25.
7. XXX (pseud.), Réalités coloniales (Paris, 19 34), p. 25 5.
8. Letter from Georges Hardy to author; Jaulgonne, August 14, 1968.
9. Théodore Zeldin, “Higher Education in France, 1848-1940,” Journal of Contemporary History II (1967), pp. 69-80.
10. Ministère des colonies, Ecole Coloniale, Rapport à M. le président du conseil de l’administration de l’Ecole Coloniale, année 1934-1935 (Paris, 1936), pp. 1-2.
11. R. S. (pseud.), “Evolution du concours d’entrée,” BSAEC XLIV (1944), 27.
12. Ibid., p. 29.
13. Pierre Lalumière, L’Inspection des finances (Paris, 1959), pp. 29-49; cited in Alain Girard, La Réussite sociale en France (Paris, 196 1), p. 311.
14. These statistics are based on the yearly reports of the Ecole Coloniale. Basing his work on the same documents and using the same categories, Roy Jumper, “The Recruitment and Training of Civil Administrators for Overseas France: A Case Study in French Bureaucracy” (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Duke University, 1955), p. 165, arrives at somewhat different figures. As a rule, however, we differ only by a few percentage points. The difference stems from the divergence in interpretation on classifying certain professions. Note that high administration is not the same as “haute administration,” a term which the French reserve for the highest echelons of the administration.
15. Interview with a former governor-general of Indochina; Paris, June 24, 1965.
16. Heussler, Yesterday’s Rulers, passim.
17. Armand Rio, “A l’Ecole Coloniale: L’Expansion de l’énergie française,” Je sais tout, 257 (May 1927), 124-127.
18. Georges Hardy, “Histoire coloniale et psychologie ethnique,” Revue de l’histoire des colonies françaises XVIII (19 25), 17 2.
19. Hardy, Ergaste, p. 101.
20. Georges Hardy, “La France d’aujourd’hui et le problème colonial,” La Nouvelle revue des jeunes III (July 15, 193 1), 30-31.
21. Quoted in Rio, “A l’Ecole Coloniale.”
22. Answer to questionnaire.
23. 1C 861, AAOF.
24. Ibid.
25. Of the sixty-nine men attending the school under Hardy’s directorship and answering the questionnaire, twenty-two pointed to Hardy aithe single most important influence.
26. Answer to questionnaire.
27. Ernest Roume, speech of November 11, 1929; quoted in BSAEC XXIX (February 1930).
28. Letter from Hardy to author; Jaulgonne, August 14, 1968.
29. “Eloge de Charles Robéquin et Henri Labouret, séance du 5 fevrier 1965, réception de M. Robert Cornevin,” Comptes-rendus, Académie des sciences d’outre-mer (Paris, 1965), pp. 24-25.
30. Ibid.
31. Roberts, History of French Colonial Policy, 1, 166.
32. Quoted in BSAEC XXIX (February 19 3 0), 5.
33. According to Hardy in BSAEC XXX (February 1931), 8.
34. Raymond Leslie Buell, The Native Problem in Africa (New York, 1928), 1, 985.
35. Decree, May 7, 1938, Bulletin officiel des colonies LII (Paris, 1938), 482-483.
36. 1C 1143, AAOF.
37. Gaston Roupnel, Histoire de la campagne française (Paris, n.d.), p. 305.
38. Michel Frochot, “Que ma joie demeure,” L’Observatoire colonial, New Series, XII (June 1938), 4. The school paper, which came out at different times under different titles, usually appeared in mimeographed form. The most complete set is available at the Institut international d’administration publique, Paris.
39. Robert Delavignette, “Connaissances des mentalités indigènes en AOF,” Congrès international et intercolonial de la société indigène I (Paris, 1931), 564.
40. Robert Delavignette, “La Formation professionnelle de l’administrateur colonial,” in René Maunier et al., L’Empire français et ses ressources (Paris, 1942), pp. 30-31.
41. Interview with Delavignette, Paris, April 1, 1965.
42. “L’Ecole Coloniale,” in De Vorming van den bestuursamtenaar voor overzeesche gewesten in Nederland, Engeland, Frankrijk, Belgie en Italie (Leiden, 1937), p. 106. Thirty years later Delavignette described the school’s role in a similar vein; interview, April 1, 1965.
43. L’Observatoire colonial (March-April 1945), p. 8.
44. Anon., Guide des cartières. Les Carrières dans le corps des administrateurs coloniaux (Paris, 193 1), p. 4.
45. Delavignette, Freedom and Authority, p. 28.
46. Answers to questionnaire; if no reference is given to the motives, they come from the questionnaire.
47. R. S. (pseud.), “Evolution du concours d’entrée,” p. 29.
48. Hubert Deschamps, “La vocation coloniale et métier d’administrateur,”Afrique française, supplement, XLI (September 1931), 499.
49. Patrick O’Reilly, Mon ami Gilbert l’africain (Dijon, 1942), p. 85.
50. E. Mournat, “Comment on cherche et on trouve une place aux colonies,” (mimeographed copy, 1937); available at the Bibliothèque nationale.
51. Anon., Quatre anciens de Colo (Paris, 1935).
52. Ibid.
53. Buell, The Native Problem in Africa, 1, 9 85.
54. J. Wilbois, Le Cameroun (Paris, 1934), p. 201.

Chapter VI: The Era of Lost Opportunities

1. 1C 1102 bis, AAOF.
2. 1C 979, AAOF.
3. 1C 194, AAOF. An unprecedented proportion of administrators entering the Corps in the interwar period were considered good functionaries by their superiors. Of 345 files belonging to men joining the service in this period, 75 percent (262) belonged to satisfactory functionazies, only 17 percent (61) to men considered brutal, or otherwise ineffective; 22 fiIes, or 8 percent, contained insuffiicient information for coding.
4. Hubert Deschamps, “Les Empires coloniaux et les nationalités d’outre-mer” (mimeographed copy of course given at the Sorbonne in 1947-1948), p. 45.
5. Hubert Deschamps, “La France d’outre-mer et la Communauté” (mimeographed copy of lectures given at the Institut d’études politiques in 1958-1959), p. 60.
6. Gallieni au Tonkin, pp. 215-216.
7. Deschamps and Paul Chauvet, Gallieni, pacificateur, p. 26.
8. Jacques Chastenet, Les Années d’illusions, 1919-1931 (Paris, 1960), p. 300; H. Hauser, “Colonies et Métropole,” Revue d’économie politique LIII (1939), 491.
9. The proposal was separately published as La Mise en valeur des colonies françaises (Paris, 1923).
10. Ibid., pp. 24-25.
11. Ibid., pp. 60-63.
12. “Commission pour l’organisation du Cameroun et de l’AEF, séance 15 mars 1920,” in Affaires politiques, carton 649, file 17, in ANSOM.
13. Quoted in J.O. de la Fédération des associations amicales et professionnelles des fonctionnaires et agents coloniaux (December 1922).
14. Henri Cosnier, L’Ouest africain français (Paris, 1921), p. xix.
15. Sarraut, La Mise en valeur, p. 22.
16. Afrique française XLVII (June 1937), 333.
17. Annales coloniales XXXII (July 23, 1931).
18. Quoted in Buell, The Native Problem in Africa, I, 939.
19. Annales coloniales XXXII (July 23, 1931).
20. André Gide, Travels in the Congo [and] Return from Chad, trans. by Dorothy Bussy (New York, 1937), p. 27.
21. Buell, The Native Problem in Africa, 1941.
22. Henri Labouret, Colonialisation, colonialisme, et décolonisation (Paris, 1952), p. 176.
23. 1934 report of inspector, in 1C 704, AAOF.
24. Marcel Olivier, Six ans de politique sociale à Madagascar (Paris, 19 3 1), p. 42.
25. Lucien Hubert, “La Politique coloniale de la France,” in Henri Brenier et al., La Politique coloniale de la France (Paris, 1924), p. 274.
26. Olivier, Six ans de politique sociale à Madagascar, p. 42.
27. For a British example in Southeast Tanzania, see Gus Liebenow, “The Dilemmas of Development: Makonde” (unpublished manuscript). I am grateful to Professor Liebenow for letting me read his study which is currently in press.
28. 1C 1029, AAOF.
29. Robert Delavignette, “Pour le paysan noir, pour l’esprit africain,” Esprit IV (1935), P. 384.
30. Henri Labouret, “A la recherche d’une politique coloniale,” Le Monde coloniale illustré LXXXII (1930), 133.
31. Deschamps, “La France d’outre-mer,” p. 76.
32. “Rapport politique, 4ème semestre de 1919, par le gouverneur de Dahomey,” Affaires politiques, carton 574, file 5, in L’AOF.
33. Lombard, Autorités traditionnelles, p. 152.
34. Comité d’initiative, Une Ame de chef, p. 48.
35. Ibid., pp. 48-50.
36. “Rapport politique”, November 1921, in 17G 40, AAOF.
37. Henri Labouret, “Le Noir et l’homme blanc en Afrique,” Le Monde colonial illustré LIV (July 1928), pp. 147-148. Later Labouret rejected both direct and indirect rule. “Politique indigène en Afrique tropicale,” Afrique française XLVIII (May 1938), 203-207; (june 1938), 267-270.
38. Ministerial circular, October 9, 1929, in Bulletin officiel des colonies (Paris, 1929), pp. 1668-1670.
39. Quoted in Annales coloniales (January 26, 19 3 1).
40. Circular, December 10, 19 3 1; 18G 5 5, AAOF.
41. Governor-general to minister of colonies, August 30, 1927; quoted in James S. Spiegler, “Aspects of Nationalist Thought among French-Speaking Africans, 1921-1939” (unpublished dissertation, Nuffield College, 1968), p. 230. I wish to express my thanks to Dr. Spiegler for letting me read his study.
42. Delavignette, Christianity and Colonialism, p. 30.
43. Robert Randau (pseud. of Robert Arnaud), Les Meneurs dhommes (Paris, 1931), p. 55.
44. Quoted in Anon., “Les Administrateurs de la France d’outre-mer,” L’Economie 451 (July 1, 1954), 17.
45. Circular, August 18, 1932; quoted in Lombard, Autorités traditionnelles, p. 103, fn. 15.
46. Pierre Hugot, Le Tchad (Paris, 1965), pp. 65-66.
47. Quoted in Suret-Canale, “La Fin de la chefferie en Guinée,” p. 476.
48. Ibid., p. 488.
49. Olivier, Six ans de politique sociale à Madagascar, p. 237. Olivier’s italics.
50. Ibid.
51. “Rapport sur le commandement indigène pour 1930,” governor of Senegal to governor-general of AOF, Saint Louis, May 18, 1931; in 2G 30, AAOF.
52. “AOF, affaires politiques, rapport politique du gouverneur général, 1937,” pp. 81-82; unnumbered file, AAOF.
53. Decree, November 15, 1924, in AOF, Journal officiel (Dakar, 1924), pp. 575-578.
54. “Soudan, Rapport politique annuel, 1935,” 2G 35/9, AAOF.
55. “Sénégal, Rapport politique annuel, 1934”, 2G 34/5, AAOF.
56. Interview with administrator who served in Senegal in the 1930s; Dakar, March 15, 1966.
57. Deschamps, “La France d’outre-mer,” p. 60.
58. Undated letter’ written in 1928; 18G 13 8, AAOF.
59. BAPA C XXVIII (February 1, 19 35), 35.
60. Delavignette, Freedom andauthority, p. 22.
61. Ibid., p. 11.
62. Letter, governor-general to minister of colonies, January 2, 1931; 18G 63/17, AAOF.
63. Quoted in Marc Simon, Souvenirs de brousse, 1910-1912 (Rennes, 1962), p. 41.
64. Circular, February 15, 1932; 18G 55, AAOF.
65. Governor Fousset, quoted in Robert Delavignette, Soudan, Paris, Bourgogne (Paris, 19 35), p. 91.
66. Letter, lieutenant-governor of Dahomey to governor-general, Porto Novo, May 29, 1933; 18G 67/17, AAOF.
67. Suret-Canale, Afrique noire, occidentale et centrale, p. 392; Discours par M. Antonetti à la séance de l’ouverture du conseil du gouvernement, session ordinaire, 1928 (Brazzaville, 1928), p. 33.
68. Letter, governor-general to minister of colonies; Dakar, June 2, 1931; 18G 63/17, AAOF.
69. Ibid.
70. P. Blondiaux, “Cinquante années d’administration française à Melfi (1903-1952)” (unpublished mémoire, Centre de hautes études administratives sur l’Afrique et l’Asie modernes, 1953), pp. 19-20.
71. Cosnier, L’Ouest africain français, viii.
72. Information kindly provided by Professor Brian Weinstein, Howard University.
73. Appendix III.
74. Liebenow, “The Dilemmas of Development: Makonde.”
75. André Davesne, Croquis de brousse (Paris, 1946), p. 334.
76. 1C 1030, AAOF.
77. René Grivot, “Problèmes d’Afrique noire: Le Beau métier d’administrateur colonial; Essai de psychologie du commandement en brousse” (mimeographed copy, n.d.), p. 11.
78. Jacques Kuoh Moukouri, Doigts noirs: Je fus écrivain-interprète au Cameroun (Montreal, 1963), pp. 28-30. 1 am grateful to Mrs. Dorothy White for bringing this passage to my attention.
79. Documents relating to these proposals in 17G 43, AAOF.
80. J.O. de la Fédération nationale des associations et syndicats de fonctionnaires et agents coloniaux XV (February 3, 1933).
81. Gourou, “Gallieni,” p. 105.
82. XXX (pseud.), Réalités coloniales (Paris, 1934), p. 232.
83. Geoffrey Gorer, Africa Dances (London, 19 35), p. 117.
84. Letter, Edward Guyenga to minister of colonies; Balang, January 30, 1909; in Dahomey, carton 7, file 8, ANSOM.
85. Brévié’s marginal notation in pencil on an article on this problem in Le Courrier colonial (September 27, 1935), 18G 98, AAOF.
86. Delavignette, “Connaissances des mentalités indigènes en AOF,” p. 561.
87. Jean-Claude Froelich, “De quelques anciens élèves de l’Ecole qui se sont illustrés dans les sciences humaines,” Latitudes (1963), p. 10.
88. Robert Delavignette, “Colo et chercheur,” Latitudes (1963), p. 8.
89. J. C. Froelich, “Delavignette et le Service africain,” Revue française dhistoire d’outre-mer LIV (196 7), 5 0.
90. The Vichy regime also abrogated this decree.
91. Gorer, Africa Dances, p. 117.
92. W. R. Crocker, On Governing Colonies (London, 1947), p. 76.
93. Circular, October 27,1937; unnumbered file, AAOF.
94. Delavignette, “Connaissances des mentalités indigènes en AOF,” p. 561.
95. Cosnier, L’Ouest africain français, p. 163.
96. Circular, May 1, 1918, Jo. AOF; quoted in Dov Ronen, “Political Development in a West African Country: The Case of Dahomey” (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1969), p. 107. I wish to thank Dr. Ronen it allowing me to read his study.
97. Sarraut, La mise en valeur, pp. 104-105.
98. Ibid., p. 115.
99. Ibid., pp. 117-120.
100. Project of May 30, 1922; reprinted in Congrès colonial national, Congrès de l’organisation coloniale, comptes rendus et rapports, vol. I (Marseilles, 1923), 145.
101. Ibid., p. 166.
102. Olivier, Six ans de politique sociale à Madagascar, p. 226.
103. Hugot, Le Tchad, p. 5 8.
104. “Rapports d’ensemble, AOF, 1931, section B,” p. 27; 2G 31/18, AAOF.
105. For his defense, see letter, governor-general to minister of colonies; Dakar, June 13, 19 34; 18G 66 (17), AAOF.
106. Austen, Northwest Tanzania, p. 154.
107. Circular of August 23, 1932; reprinted in Circulaires de M. le Gouverneur général J. Brévié sur la politique indigène et l’administration indigène en Afrique occidentale française (Gorée, 1935), pp. 22-23.
108. Letter, de Coppet to governor-general; Porto Novo, March 26, 1934; quoted in “AOF, Rapport politique annuel, 1934,” 2G 34/12, AAOF. In the nineteenth century the inhabitants of four communes in Senegal—Gorée, Dakar, Saint Louis, and Rufisque—had been made citizens.
109. “AOF, Rapport politique annuel, 1934.”
110. Circular, June 10, 1930, Bulletin officiel des colonies (Paris, 1930), PP. 907-910.
111. Governor-general to minister of colonies, April 3, 1939; quoted in J. S. Spiegler, “Aspects of Nationalist Thought,” p. 273.
112. Camille Guy, “La Politique coloniale de la France,” in Henri Brenier et al., La Politique coloniale de la France (Paris, 1924), p. 267.
113. Manuela Semidei, “De l’Empire à la décolonisation, à travers les manuels scolaires français,” Revue française de science politique XVI (February 1966), 71.
114. Copy of this report in 17G 59, AAOF. Among the members of the council were prominent experts on colonial law such as Arthur Girault and Paul Dislère, and the director of political affairs of the ministry of colonies, André Duchêne.
115. Quoted in Deschamps, “La France d’outre-mer,” p. 57.
116. Henri Labouret, “L’Accession des indigènes à la cityoenneté française,” Afrique française (1935)’ p. 721; quoted in Rudolf von Albertini, Dekolonisation (Cologne, 1966), pp. 392-393.
117. Deschamps, “La France d’outre-mer,” p. 69.
118. XXX, Réalités coloniales, pp. 112-114.
119. Ibid., p. 116.
120. Copy of governors-general’s conference, in 17G 86, AAOF.
121. Decree, April 26, 1938, Bulletin officiel des colonies LII (1938), p. 423.
122. Delavignette, Christianity and Colonialism, p. 3 3.
123. Lucien Hiquily, La Politique impériale et la conférence coloniale de 1935 (Lyon, 1937), p. 34.
124. All French offiicials serving overseas were paid a “basic salary” plus a “colonial supplement” which was 70-100 percent of the basic salary. The Africans would have been paid only the basic salary.
125. Naturalized Africans had, of course, always been able to enter the service.
126. Olivier, Six ans de politique sociale à Madagascar, pp. 269-270.
127. Ibid.
128. “Procès verbal de la séance inaugurale, tenue jeudi 8 juillet [ 193 7 ] à 15 heures au ministère des colonies,” 7G 252, AAOF.
129. Ibid.; the last part of the phrase, beginning with the words “take care” was underlined by de Coppet in his copy of the speech. Was the liberal official comforted or irritated by Moutet’s cautiousness?
130. Interview with Robert Delavignette; Paris, April 16, 1966.
131. Deschamps, “La France d’outre-mer,” p. 58.
132. Inspection tour by Inspector-General Bourgeois-Gavardin in Dahomey, 1940-1941; 17G 111, AAOF. The report written on administration in the Sudan came to similar conclusions.
133. Race nègre (February 1932); quoted in Spiegler, “Aspects of Nationalist Thought,” p. 230.
134. La Presse Porto Novienne, July 1933; quoted in Ronen, “Political Development in a West African Country,” p. 127.
135. Le Phare du Dahomey, August 1933, quoted in Ronen,“Political Development in a West African Country,” p. 137.
136. Quoted in Spiegler, “Aspects of National Thought,” p. 69.
137. Circulaire no. 517c, L’Esprit nouveau, 11 juillet 1941 (Dakar, 194 1), p. 1.
138. Gifford, “Indirect Rule,” pp. 351-391.
139. Lord Hailey, Native Administration and Political Development in British Tropical Africa (London, 1942), p. 22; quoted in Austen, Northwest Tanzania, pp. 214-215.
140. Froelich, “Delavignette et le Service africain,” p. 45.
141. Henri Baudet, Paradise on Earth, trans. by Elizabeth Wentholt (New Haven, Conn., 1965).
142. Delavignette, Freedom andauthority, pp. 147-148.
143. P. O. Lapie, My Travels through Chad, trans. by Leslie Bull (London, 1943), pp.186,188.

Chapter VII: The ENFOM, 1940-1959

1. Jumper, “The Recruitment and Training of Civil Administrators,” p. 141.
2. Robert Delavignette, “La Formation professionnelle de l’administrateur,” in Maunier et al., L’Empire français et ses ressources, p. 29.
3. Ibid., p. 30. Delavignette’s italics.
4. Deeree, August 6,1941, Bulletin officiel des Colonies LV (Paris, 1941), 271-272. (Henceforth this publication will be cited as BOC.)
5. Arrêté, February 5, 1944,BOC LVIII (Paris, 1944), pt. 1, 49.
6.Robert Delavignette, quoted in Colo 46 (January 1946), 6; Jumper, “The Recruitment and Training of Civil Administrators,” p. 142.
7. Jumper, “The Recruitment and Training of Civil Administrators,” p. 142.
8. His stepson Jean Mairey played an important part in the liberation of Dijon and was after the war a Commissaire de la République; Delavignette’s wife also played a role in the resistance.
9. Interview with Robert Delavignette; Montbard, September 9, 1965.
10. Answers to questionnaire.
11. Ministère des colonies, Agence économique des colonies, Vous voulez aller aux colonies (Paris, 1943).
12. Jumper, “The Recruitment and Training of Civil Administrators,” p. 142.
13. In 1950, there were still 75 officials in the Corps who had gained entrance to it as a result of their resistance activities. Their educational level was as follows: 18 percent had less than secondary school education, 42 percent had only a secondary education, 18 percent had a licence in law, 9 percent had a licence in letters, 4 percent had a doctorate in law, 3 percent had diplomas from Saint Cyr, 4 percent had degrees from the Institut détude politique, 1 percent were doctors in medicine, and 1 percent had a licence in science.
14. Speech by Robert Delavignette, March 15, 1945; quoted in L’Observatoire colonial (March-April 1945), p. 12.
15. Anon., Centre de hautes études administratives sur l’Afrique et lasie modernes (Paris, 1959); I wish to thank M. J. C. Froelich, director of curriculum at CHEAM, for information about the center in interviews with him in Paris, October 1965.
16. A motto frequently used by Delavignette; for instance, see his “L’Administrateur territorial en Afrique noire française,” Revue des travaux de l’Académie des sciences morales et politiques CXVIII (1965), 88.
17. Ministère des colonies, Bulletin hebdomadaire dinformation, November 27, 1944.
18. Mus was one of the few Frenchmen whom Ho Chi Minh had trusted and through whom he had negotiated with the French government. In 1954 Mus expressed his liberal views on overseas policy in his book, Le Destin de l’Union Française, de l’Indochine à laftique (Paris, 1954). Mus is currently professor of Asian studies at Yale University and a leading authority on Vietnam in the United States.
19. Interviews with a number of former officials of the ENFOM and with some of Mus’s former students.
20. Quoted in P. Laubriet, “A la conquête des coeurs, par l’Ecole nationale de la France d’outre-mer,” Mer-Outre-Mer I (June-July 1947), 9.
21. This essay is now available in the library of the Institut international d’administration publique, Paris.
22. Interview with former administrator; Paris, October 18, 1965.
23. Decree of October 30, 1950, in J.O.: Lois et décrets (Paris, 1950), pp. 11189-11198, amended and corrected in J.O.: Lois et décrets (Paris, 1950), p. 12563. On the reforms of 1950, see Jumper, “The Recruitment and Training of Civil Administrators,” pp. 180-181; Paul Bouteille, “L’Ecole nationale de la France d’outre-mer,“ Revue konomique française“ LXVIII (May 1955), 2-5; Pierre Hugot, “L’Ecole nationale de la France d’outre-mer,” La Nouvelle revue française d’outre-mer IL (July 1957), 391-394.
24. Quoted in Jumper, “The Recruitment and Training of Civil Administrators,” p. 180.
25. These essays varied in quality, but some of them are still a useful source of information on French Africa. The essays are stored in the library of the Institut international d’administration publique, Paris.
26. Jumper, “The Recruitment and Training of Civil Administrators,” p. 183.
27. Ibid., pp. 177-178.
28. Ibid., p. 164, fn. 4.
29. Paul Mus, “La Formation des cadres administratifs d’outre-mer: ENFOM ou ENA? ” La Revue administrative 2 (March-April 1948), pp. 16-23; Jumper, “The Recruitment and Training of Civil Administrators,” pp. 155-157.
30. Jumper, “The Recruitment and Training of Civil Administrators,” pp. 232-233.
31. Source: Ibid., pp. 165, 195. Note that the figures for the ENFOM refer to all students entering the school, not only to those in the administrative section.
32. Ministère de la France d’outre-mer, ENFOM (Paris, 195 6), pp. 3 740.
33. Ibid., p. 56.
34. Anon., “Africanisation,” Le Bleu doutre-mer (April 1956).
35. Anon., “Suggestions,” Le Bleu doutre-mer (April 1956).
36. Among those signing the manifesto were 29 out of 34 students in their filrst year of studies, 24 out of 29 students in their second year of studies, and 18 out of the 34 students in their third year.
37. Quoted in Le Monde XIII (February 12-13, 1956), p. 2.
38. Interviews with former staff members of the ENFOM, and with one of the sponsors of the manifesto, Jean Bugnicourt, Dakar, April 9, 1966.
39. The definite break with traditional overseas policy inherent in the spirit of the manifesto was also reflected in the actions of the Socialist student movement which that year was expelled from the Socialist Party after inviting Algerian FLN representatives to a conference on decolonization held on the Côte d’Azur.
40. Interview with Jean Bugnicourt; Dakar, April 9, 1966.
41. In December of that year the student newspaper of the ENFOM reprinted strongly worded anticolonial extracts from Jacques Rabemananjara, Témoignage malgache et colonialisme (Paris, 1956), in Bleu doutre-mer (December 1956).
42. Hubert Deschamps, “Les Assemblées locales dans les territoires d’outre-mer,” Politique étrangère XIX (August-October 1954), 427-436.
43. Anon., “Africanisation,” Le Bleu d’outre-mer (April 1956).
44. See Chapter VIII for discussion of the Defferre laws.
45. The decrees gave increased access to the populations of all the overseas territories; localization, rather than Africanization, would be a more apt term. On the other hand, most of the overseas territories were African; the rest were small and insignificant areas in the Pacific such as New Caledonia or Tahiti.
46. Delavignette, “L’Administrateur en Afrique noire française,” p. 96.
47. Among these the single largest contingent of students came from Madagascar with 174 students; the second largest number came from Congo, Leopoldville, with 100 students. The rest came from the French successor states, with the exception of one student from Nigeria. Anon., “L’Institut de hautes études d’outre-mer à l’honneur,” Marchés tropicaux et méditerranéens XIX (February 16, 1963), 313.
48. In 1966 the administration removed the Buddhas thinking that their presence might hurt some students’ sensibilities.

Chapter VIII: The Corps in an Era of Change

1. Albert Tevoedjre, L’Afrique révoltée (Paris, 1958), p. 33; quoted in Claude Wauthier, L’Afrique des africains (Paris, 1964), p. 119.
2. Between 1933 and 1946, Upper Volta, because of economy measures, was administered by an “administrateur supérieur” instead of a governor.
3. For the entire story of his resistance activities, see Emile Louveau, Au bagne entre les griffes de Vichy et de la milice (Bamako, 1947).
4. Suret-Canale, Afrique noire, occidentale et centrale, p. 570.
5. Jacques Soustelle, Envers et contre tout (Paris, 1947), 1, 172.
6. Quoted in Hubert Deschamps, Méthodes et doctrines coloniales de la France du XIVe. siècle à nos jours (Paris, 195 3), p. 177.
7. Suret-Canale, Afrique noire, occidentate et centrale, p. 570.
8. See, for instance, circular of Governor-General Boisson to his governors, June 26, 1941; in 17G 119, AAOF.
9. Circulaire no. 51 7c, L’esprit nouveau, 11 juillet 1941, p. 1.
10. 1C 1047, 1C 1095, 1C 1032, AAOF.
11. Meeting of June 17, 1942, in Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences coloniales (1942), p. 408.
12. Ibid.
13. Meeting of May 1942, in ibid., pp. 307-309.
14. Robert W. July, The Origins of Modern African Thought (New York, 1967), p. 237.
15. Félix Eboué, La Nouvelle politique indigène pour l’Afrique équatoriale française (Brazzaville, 1941), p. 15.
16. Ibid., pp. 24-25.
17. Von Albertini, Dekolonisation, p. 418.
18. Charles de Gaulle, Mémoires de guerre, vol. II (Paris, 1956), pp. 223-225.
19. “Programme de la conférence impériale de Brazzaville, rapport préliminaire” (mimeographed copy, undated).
20. Ibid.
21. De Gaulle, Mémoires de guerre, II, 478.
22. It has been argued that the conference reflected the opinions of the younger members of the colonial service. This point is made, for instance, by Kenneth Robinson, “The Public Law of Overseas France since the War,” Journal of Comparative Legislation 32 (1952), 42. Most of the delegates, however, were older officials. One could make a stronger point in arguing that the recommendations of the conference closely reflected those of Commissioner of Colonies René Pleven.
23. Quoted in Winston S. Churchill, The Second World War, vol. III (Boston, 1950), p. 443.
24. Ministère des colonies, Conférence africaine française-Brazzaville (Paris, 1945), p. 22.
25. Ibid., p. 32.
26. Ibid., p. 39.
27. Ibid.
28. Ibid., p. 37.
29. Ibid., p. 61.
30. Anon., “L’Epuration,” Défense de l’Occident (January-February 1957), pp. 78-85.
31. In 1943-1944 the Gaullist governor-general of AOF recommended the promotion of six out of thirty-six officials whom he considered to have been “politically unreliable.”
32. Peter Novick, The Resistance versus Vichy: The Purge of Collaborators in Liberated France (New York, 1968), p. 90. The ministry of foreign affairs, for instance, was hardly purged, keeping most of its former officials. The ministry of interior and the prefectoral corps seem to have been among the few organizations which were purged. See Raymond Aron, “Social Structure and the Ruling Class,” British Journal of Sociology I, no. 2 (1950), 127.
33. The designation “territory” was given to all the areas formerly dependent upon the ministry of colonies, except for the “old colonies” which had become departments, and the mandated areas and Indochina.
34. Debate, August 27, 1946, Jo., Assemblée nationale: Débats (Paris, 1946), p. 334.
35. Herbert Luethy, “La République continue,” Preuves 89 (July 1958), 14.
36. Robert Delavignette, “L’Union Française à l’échelle du monde, à la mesure de l’homme,” Espoir (July 8, 1945); quoted in Ministire des colonies, Bulletin hebdomadaire dinformation (September 17, 1945), p. 22.
37. Answer to 1965 questionnaire.
38. Anon., “Faillite de la colonisation? ” Colo (December 1947), p. 7.
39. All French political groups favored the continuation of close bonds between France and her overseas territories. Only the Communist Party at times was sympathetic to independence movements.
40. Ministère de la France d’outre-mer, Bulletin dinformation (September 8, 1947), annex, p. 5.
41. Marius Moutet, “The French Colonial Empire,” in General Directory of Exportation and of the World Commercial Fairs (Paris, 1948), p. 186.
42. There had always been an overseas magistrature, but before the war it had served primarily in courts dealing with French civil law.
43. Letter to author; Paris, October 12, 1965.
44. Answers to questionnaire. For a bemused description of a young overseas judge’s efforts to put his ideals into action, see Théophile Crouzat, Azizah de Niamkoko (Paris, 1959).
45. Maurice Méker, “Cinq années d’évolution d’un cercle soudanais, Bougouni,” Colo LII (April 195 2), 16.
46. Ibid., pp. 16-21.
47. Africanus (pseud.), L’Afrique noire devant l’indépendance (Paris, 1958), p. 67.
48. Ruth Schachter Morgenthau, Political Parties in French-Speaking West Africa (New York, 1965), p. 123. A French legal expert wrote in 1959: “The administrator … cannot afford to contradict the elected representative of his region; sometimes he gets on so well with him that if the elected representative changes, then the administrator also has to be changed.” François Luchaire, “Les Grandes tendances de l’Afrique noire,” Revue française de science politique IX, no. 3 (September 1959), 592.
49. Circular, April 14, 1949, Bulletin officiel de la France d’outre-mer (1949).
50. Morgenthau, Political Parties in French-Speaking West Africa, p. 203.
51. Interview; Paris, October 18, 1965.
52. Ibid.
53. Circular, April 14, 1949, loc. cit.
54. Raymond Gauthereau, Passage du feu (Paris, 1958), p. 69.
55. De Kat Angelino, Colonial Policy, I, 507.
56. Ibid., I, 508.
57. Answer to questionnaire.
58. Answer to questionnaire. Henri Saurin, inspector-general in the Corps of Overseas Inspectors, reflected the opinion of some of the older members of the colonial administration when in 1948 he complained that it was absurd to grant “French citizenship to the peasant of the Red River or of the Congo.” The seating of “deputies of all colors in our National Assembly” he found to be “a parody of the democratic regime [which] tends to do nothing but disorganize [and] to deliver the working masses into the hands of bad chiefs.” Speech to Académie des sciences coloniales, meeting January 16, 1948; in Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences coloniales (1948), p. 4.
59. Answers to questionnaire.
60. Mimeographed memorandum by the secretary-general of AOF, Dakar, 1945, AAOF.
61. Ibid.
62. Circular, May 1946, reprinted in Ministère des colonies, Bulletin d’information (June 17, 1946).
63. Crozier, The Bureaucratic Phenomenon, pp. 195-199.
64. Anon., “L’Avenir du corps des administrateurs de la France d’outre-mer,” Latitudes 2 (195 7), 2 1.
65. Quoted in Paul Alduy, L’Union Française (Paris, 1948), p.
66. Interview with administrators who had served in Chad and Sudan; Paris, October 18, 1965. In Guinea, both the indigénat code and forced labor seem to have continued in some regions. Suret-Canale, “La Fin de la chefferie en Guinée,” pp . 482-483.
67. Jacques Le Cornec, Histoire politique du Tchad de 1900 à 1962 (Paris, 1963), p. 69.
68. Answer to questionnaire in reference to the Defferre decrees.
69. These men played the role which Crozier has called “authoritarian reform figures.” Like the castes of higher civil servants making up the grands corps, the political appointees overseas tended to “minimize the authoritarian aspects of their own role by their impartiality and the prestige they enjoy because of their elite situation.” Crozier, The Bureaucratic Phenomenon, pp. 197-198.
70. Discours prononcé par le haut commissaire de la République Française devant le grand conseil de l’AOF à l’ouverture de la session; 3 septembre 1949 (Dakar, 1949), pp. 5-6.
71. In 1944 in Senegal 12 out of 37 administrators occupied desk jobs, in Mauritania 3 out of 13, in Niger 6 out of 24, in Sudan 11 out of 45. In 1950 the proportions were quite similar; in Dahomey, for instance, 12 out of 41 administrators were in desk posts.
72. Méker, “Cinq années d’évolution,” p. 16.
73. M. Hervé, “Le District de Kouango,” unpublished mémoire, Centre de hautes études administratives sur l’Afrique et l’Asie modernes (1950), p. 66.
74. Circular, April 14, 1949, loc. cit., p. 313.
75. Ministère des colonies, Conférence africaine française, p. 83.
76. Speech by Laurentie, June 4, 1945; reprinted in Ministère des colonies, Bulletin hebdomadaire d’information (June 11, 1945), pp. 7-8.
77. Pierre Alexandre, “L’Organisation politique des Kotokoli du Nord Togo,” Cahiers d’études africaines VI (1963), 269, fn. 3.
78. P. Garreau, “Evolution administrative d’un cercle voltaique” (unpublished mémoire, Centre de hautes études administratives sur l’Afrique et l’Asie modernes, 1956, p. 12.
79. Territoire de la Guinée française, Conférence des commandants de cercles, Conakry, 25, 26, et 27 juillet 1957 (Conakry, 195 7), p. 23.
80. Ibid., p. 9.
81. Quoted in Ministère des colonies, Bulletin d’information (August 26, 1946), p. 7.
82. Quoted in Ministère de la France d’outre-mer, Bulletin dinformation (October 1950), p. 3.
83. François Mitterrand, Présence française et abandon (Paris, 1957), pp. 186-187.
84. Ibid., p. 199.
85. Answer to questionnaire.
86. Speech, February 1957, quoted in Pierre Gentil, “Le Tchad: Décolonisation et indépendance,” Comptes-rendus, Académie des sciences d’outre-mer, séances des 3 et 17 janvier 1969 XXIX (January 1969), p. 2.
87. A good example of this type was Pierre Gentil, who as administrator in Indochina had written a critical account of French rule; see his Sursaut de l’Asie, remous du Mékong (Paris, 195 1). Once in Africa, he was to favor reform. In the answers to the questionnaire a larger proportion of administrators with former service in Indochina indicated support of the reforms of 1946 and of 1956-1957 than those who had served only in Africa.
88. Chroniques doutre-mer (May 1955), p. 37.
89. Quoted in Ministère de la France d’outre-mer, “Pour un meilleur destin dan les territoires d’outre-mer, bilan d’un gouvernement, février 1955-janvier 1956” (Paris, 1956), p. 4.
90. Ibid., p. 7.
91. Ibid., p. 19.
92. Speech, November 10, 1955; in Chroniques d’outre-mer (December 1955), p. 24.
93. Ibid., p. 25.
94. “It is beyond doubt that the parliament violated the constitution,” writes one of the foremost French legal experts, P. F. Gonidec, Droit doutre-mer I, 466.
95. Ibid., I, 472-473.
96. Interview, Paris, October 19, 1965, with four former administrators who in 1956 had been in such diverse areas as Chad, Sudan, Dahomey, and Senegal.
97. Georges Rey, “Réformes en Afrique noire,” Encyclopédie mensuelle d’outre-mer 78 (February 1957), p. 49.
98. Jean Coste, “Problèmes et perspectives de l’administration du Sénegal” (unpublished dissertation, Université de Bordeaux, Faculté de droit et des sciences économiques, 1965), p. 68.
99. Gentil, “Le Tchad,” p. 6.
100. Pierre Paraf, L’Ascension des peuples noirs (Paris, 1958), pp. 44-45.
101. Ibid.
102. Anon., “L’Africanisation des cadres en Côte d’Ivoire,” Encyclopédie mensuelle d’outre-mer 70 (June 1956), p. 250.
103. Territoire de la Guinée française, Conférence des commandants, p. 74.
104. Robert Cornevin in speech to Académie des sciences d’outre-mer, meeting February 15, 1957, in Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences doutre-mer (1957), p. 69.
105. Information provided by Professor David Muffett, a former British official in Northern Nigeria; Bloomington, Indiana, December 13, 1967.
106. Quoted in Michael Crowder, “Independence as a Goal in French West African Polities, 1944-1960,” in William H. Lewis, ed., French Speaking Africa (New York, 1965), p. 29.
107. Answer to questionnaire.
108. Crowder, “Independence as a Goal,” pp. 15-4 1.
109. Speech, January 29, 195 7; J.o., Assemblée nationale (Paris, 195 7), p. 373.
110. François Mitterrand, Présence française et abandon.
111. Independence within the Community was not permitted by the Constitution, but de Gaulle conveniently ignored it.
112. Visiting the ministry of overseas France in the summer of 1958, Professor John H. Morrow discovered that “it was clear that any idea of independence in the foreseeable future was far from the minds of those in charge.” John H. Morrow, First American Ambassador to Guinea (New Brunswick, N.J., 1968), p. xi.
113. Answer to questionnaire.
114. The works of disillusioned leftists, such as that of René Dumont, L’Afrique noire est mal partie (Paris, 196 2), can also lead to such conclusions.
115. Answer to questionnaire.
116. Robert Cornevin claims that the bush administrators remained quite ignorant of the political evolution of the territories. “They still thought the situation could be saved.” Interview with Robert Cornevin; Paris, June 1, 1965.

Chapter IX: The Legacy

1. Speech by Ibrahima Sow, March 19, 1960; Sénégal magazine 3-4 (April-May 1960).
2. Speech by Ibrahima Sar, minister of labor and public works, March 19, 1960; ibid.
3. Theresa Hayter, French Aid (London, 1966), pp. 160-161.
4. Interview with former administrator; October 18, 1965.
5. A short comparison of the process of Africanization, or rather “localization,” of the civil services in the former colonies and of the role of the colonial administrations after independence may be found in Richard Symonds, The British and Their Successors (London, 1966).
6. Among those who have expressed their admiration for the French method of granting administrative aid after independence are Richard Symonds, a former British official in India (ibid., pp. 216-217), and a high Ghanian civil servant, A. L. Adu (The Civil Service in Africa [London, 1965 ], p. 85).
7. Adding the number of former administrators who were not members of the alumni association, one would reach a filgure of approximately 220 former administrators serving overseas under the French technical assistance program. The alumni association listed the distribution of its members in the technical assistance program as follows: 16 officials were in the Cameroons, 12 in the Central African Republic, 4 in the Congo (Brazzaville), 34 in the Ivory Coast, 7 in Dahomey, 7 in Upper Volta, 40 in Madagascar, 13 in Niger, 14 in Senegal, 12 in Chad, and 5 in Togo.
8. Charles F. Darlington and Alice B. Darlington, African Betrayal (New York, 1968), p. 40.
9. François Zucarelli, “Du canton à l’arrondissement sénégalais” (unpublished mémoire for the Diplôme d’études supérieures de droit public, Dakar, 1965), pp. 56-57. He examined 73 out of 86 files belonging to chefs d’arrondissements and found that only 37 out of 73 belonged to chiefs who had formerly been chefs de cantons.
10. “Communication du ministère de l’intérieur sur la réforme administrative” (St. Louis, 1960), p. 8.
11. For the development of local government in the French-speaking world, see the special issue of Revue juridique et politique de lind6pendance et coopération XXII (April-June 1968). A summary of the African experience is given by Pierre Lampué, “Le Régime municipal dans les états francophones,” ibid., pp. 463-484.
12. Ladipo Adamoleku, “Politics and Administration in West Africa: The Guinean Model,” Journal of Administration Overseas, VIIII (October 1969), 238.
13. Interview, February 1966.
14. See, for instance, the thoughtful. discussion by Robert Delavignette, “L’Administrateur territorial en Afrique noire française,” Revue des travaux de l’Académie des sciences morales et politiques XCVIII (1965), 83-96.
15. Numerous interviewees and answers to the questionnaire.
16. James Coleman, “The Legal Aspects of Staff Problems in Tropical and Sub-tropical Countries,” working paper for the 32nd study session of the International Institute of Differing Civilizations, Munich, 1960, General Report, I, p. 15. See also Fred G. Burke, “Public Administration in Africa: The Legacy of Inherited Colonial Institutions,” Journal of Comparative Administmtion I (November 1969), 345-378.
17. To some French-speaking Africans the political neutrality of the administration seems to be one of the hallmarks of their Englishspeaking neighbors. The governor of the Casamance region visited Nigeria in 1965. He found the political neutrality of the administration to be one of the most striking features of Nigerian administration. Interview, Ziguinchor, February 1966.
18. For a general survey of these schools see A. Bernard, “Les écoles nationales d’administration en Afrique noire,” Coopgration et développement, no. 2 (August 1964), pp. 28-35. For a pessimistic evaluation of the school in Senegal, which is probably one of the best in French-speaking Africa, see Philippe Georges, “L’Ecole nationale d’administration du Sénégal,” Penant LXXIV (1964), 523-534. For evaluations of other national schools of administration see A. H. Marchand, “La Formation des cadres supérieurs de l’administration ivoirienne,” Penant LXXIX (April-June 1969), 171-208; (July-September 1969), 333-361; (October-December 1969), 443-529; Paul Torrès, “La Formation des cadres de I’administration régionale en Afrique centrale,” International Review ofAdministrative Sciences XXXV, no. 4 (1969), 302-314.
19. Anon., “Sénégal, du contrôle des administrations,” Afrique nouvelle (November 9-16, 1967).
20. Ibid.
21. Michel Legris, “Esquisses contrafricaines,” Le Monde XXIII (January 4, 1966), 4.
22. Gilbert Comte, “Les Difficultés de I’Afrique noire. Un example: Le Niger,“ Europe-France-Outre-mer (May 1964), quoted in Pierre de Briey, “The Administrations of theNew States,” Civilisations XIV (1964), 7.
23. François Zucarelli, “Le Département sénégalais,” Revue juridique et politique d’indépendance et coopération XXII (July-September 1968), 873, fn. 35.
24. This point is argued rather persuasively by Jean Merlo, “Les Fonctionnaires africains et le mécontentement des masses rurales,” Le Mois en Afrique 2 (February 1966), 60-68.
25. A free car, free housing, and two paid servants also added to the opulence of the regional administrators.
26. Anon., “Salaires, soldes et traitements au Sénégal,” Afrique documents no. 104 (1969), 249.
27. Agence France presse, spécial outre-mer, February 23, 1965.
28. R6publique du Sénégal, Ministère du plan et du développement, Carte pour servir à l’aménagement du territoire (Dakar, 1965), p. 35.
29. Zucareill, “Le Département sénégalais,” p. 872, fn. 3.
30. Delavignette, “L’Administrateur territorial en Afrique noire française,” p. 96.
31. J. P. NDiaye, Enquête sur les étudiants noirs (Paris, 1962), p. 231.
32. N’Diaye (ibid., p. 232) found that the motives for entering public service could be divided into the following categories:

  1. To serve the State, Africa, my people 52.6 percent
  2. Gratitude toward my people, because I am a scholarship student 16.5 percent
  3. By vocation, choice of studies 10.3 percent
  4. Socialist ideal for the country 8.5 percent
  5. Security 5.5 percent
  6. Other 3.8 percent
  7. No explanation 2.8 percent

33. Interview with Pierre Alexandre; Paris, October 15, 1965.
34. NDiaye, Enquête sur les 9tudiants noirs, p. 200.
35. In 1965 Congo, Leopoldville, a Belgian successor state, also gained admission to the organization.
36. Quoted in Robert Delavignette, “Tiers monde, tiers état?” La Revue de Paris LXXII (December 1965), 86.
37. For a review of the “francophone” movement see Jean Louis Goelan, “L’Afrique d’expression française et la francophonie,” Penant, LXXIX (January-March 1969), 1-32; (April-June 1969), 209-242.
38. Hayter, French Aid, p. 9.
39. Quoted in ibid., pp. 10-11. Foreign Minister Couve de Murville told the French National Assembly that “the mission of France is to teach our language and make known our culture.” J.O. Assemblée nationale (November 4, 1966), p. 4191.
40. Delavignette, “Tiers monde, tiers état?” p. 90.
41. M. Dannaud in a speech to the Académie des sciences morales et politiques, March 1965, quoted by Delavignette in ibid.
42. Charles de Gaulle, Mémoires despoir, vol. I (Paris, 1970), 43.
43. Eighty-two percent answered negatively. NDiaye, Enquête sur les étudiants noirs, p, 291.
44. Ibid., pp. 295, 297.
45. Of the students interviewed 87 percent desired continued economic, political, and cultural ties. In cultural affairs, an even higher proportion, 95 percent, desired continued relations. Ibid., pp. 303-304.
46. Delavignette, “Tiers monde, tiers-état?” pp. 88-89.
47. Since 1959, Ahe successor states have substantially increased their own tax receipts. Miss Hayter gives the following figures for the increase in tax receipts between 1959 and 1965: for the Ivory Coast 34 percent, Upper Volta 130 percent, Mali 87 percent, Congo 102 percent, Gabon 87 percent, Senegal 59 percent, Central African Republic 75 percent, Chad 80 percent, Mauritania 190 percent. Hayter, French Aid, p. 162.

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